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TIS Technology Information Sheets

TIS Technology Information Sheets

Fossil fuel power plants produce the majority of electricity in the European Union (EU), mainly through pulverized coal (PC) combustion. But more than half of operating coal plants are over 25 years read more
Bioenergy is produced by means of several technology chains, from the production of biomass – cultivation, harvesting, transportation, storage and eventually pre-treatment – to its use in a read more
Biofuels are transportation fuels derived from agriculture, forestry or other organic feedstocks. Bio-ethanol and bio-diesel are currently the most common biofuels used in transport, although other read more
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies aim to capture as much as 85% of CO2 emissions from power plants and heavy industry before transporting it by pipeline or ship and storing it at least read more
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the simultaneous generation of useful thermal energy and mechanical or electrical energy from a single fuel source. Because CHP recovers heat that read more
Concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies produce electricity by concentrating the sun’s rays to heat a medium (usually a liquid or gas) that is then used in a heat engine process (steam or gas read more
Electricity storage can smooth out fluctuations in supply and can overcome mismatches between supply and demand of electricity. On the transmission grid level, this is overwhelmingly achieved with read more
The most important use of cement is in the production of concrete. It acts as the binder that ‘glues’ the other key ingredients of concrete – sand and gravel. Cement typically makes up about 12% of read more
The iron and steel industry is one of the biggest industrial emitters of CO2, accounting for between 4% and 7% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions globally. In the past 40 years there has been a 50% read more
The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive sectors of the EU. To improve energy efficiency the industry has invested in combined heat and power (CHP) generation and, in Europe, read more
The building sector accounts for approximately 38% (2011) of final energy consumption in Europe. The energy saving potential of this sector is substantial, with significant potential benefits at many read more
Hydrogen (H2) is an energy carrier that can store and deliver energy in widely useable forms. When hydrogen is produced from non-fossil energy sources or using CO2 sequestration, there are no read more
Geothermal literally means ‘Earth's heat’. Geothermal energy is derived from the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth’s interior. The geothermal resource is renewable, as there is a read more
Heat pumps have been identified as a technology that can contribute to the European Commission's renewable energy and climate targets. Synergies between heat pump technology on the demand side and read more
Heating and cooling applications account for almost 50% of total final energy consumption in Europe and, although energy demand for space heating is expected to decline, energy demand for space read more
Hydropower electricity is the product of transforming potential energy stored in water in an elevated reservoir into the kinetic energy of the running water, then mechanical energy in a rotating read more
Nuclear fission energy is a competitive and mature low-carbon technology, operating to high levels of safety within the EU. Most of the current designs are second generation Light Water Reactors (LWR read more
Nuclear fusion is an attractive long-term energy solution, although it is unlikely that the technology will be ready for commercial power generation in the near future. Fusion is the process that read more
Oceans represent a huge, predictable resource for renewable energy. The main forms of ocean energy are waves, tides, marine currents, salinity gradient and temperature gradient. Wave and tidal energy read more
A smart electricity grid is an upgraded active electricity network. It can intelligently integrate the actions of users that are connected, creating so-called ‘prosumers’ who are able to produce read more
Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on Earth. After hydro and wind power, solar photovoltaic (PV) energy is the third most important renewable energy source, in terms of global read more
Wind energy is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. It is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean and produces no greenhouse gas emissions. Onshore wind energy is a mature technology read more