Climate change, driven by forces such as deforestation and fossil fuel use, defines today’s global challenges. With the Paris Agreement, countries have agreed to takeaction to limit global warming to 2°C.
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Emissions related to the use of fossil fuels to meet energy demand (e.g. electricity, heat, transportation and industry) are the largest contributor to greenhouse gas accumulation (IPCC 2014) . Indeed, action in the energy sector alone can achieve the goals laid out in the Paris Agreement. This includes reducing the share of fossil fuels in the energy mix, increasing the share of renewable energy sources (e.g. wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal), and improving energy efficiency across the economy (IEA, 2015) , as depicted in Table 1. 
The energy sector is tightly linked to other sectors of the economy; changes in the energy sector will not only affect employment in the sector itself (direct effects) but will also affect other sectors (indirect effects) because of these tight linkages (see, for example, Cassar, 2015 ; Garrett-Peltier, 2017 ; OECD, 2010 ; Stehrer & Ward, 2012 ; WEF & IHS CERA, 2012 ; Wild, 2014 )
Using EXIOBASE, a multiregional input-output table that serves as a model of the worldwide economy, the ILO (2018)  estimated the potential impact on worldwide, economy-wide employment of the adoption of the changes suggested to specific countries and regions by the International Energy Agency (2015) . By 2030, a global economy that acts to limit climate change will have 0.3 per cent more employment than an economy that follows the business as usual path. That is, some 18 million jobs could be added to the economy following steps to limit global warming to 2°C. Because of efforts to increase energy efficiency and renewable energy, job creation will take place in the construction sector, the manufacture of electrical parts and machinery, the mining of copper ores, and the renewable energy sector (e.g. solar photovoltaic, wind and hydro). As a result of this transition, jobs will also be lost; losses are concentrated in sectors closely related to fossil fuel extraction and the generation of electricity from fossil fuels (e.g. petroleum and coal) .
On a regional scale, Asia and the Pacific, the Americas and Europe will experience net job creation. Africa and the Middle East, given their reliance on fossil fuels, will experience net job losses. The job losses predicted for the Middle East and Africa can be avoided with policies to diversify their economies. Similarly, net job creation will only occur if emerging industries find adequately skilled workers to satisfy demand .
The projected changes, and the assumptions therein, highlight the complementary policies needed to maximise the creation of decent jobs and to protect workers who may lose out from these changes. These complementary policies include, as highlighted by the ILO’s Guidelines for a just transition to environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all, skills development policies, industrial policy, macroeconomic policy, active labour market policies, social protection policies and policies to promote social dialogue (ILO, 2015) .
 IPCC, Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2014
 International Energy Agency, Energy technology perspectives 2015: Mobilising innovation to accelerate climate action, Paris, 2015.
 These changes are the IEA’s suggested path to achieve the goal of the Paris Agreement. They are not necessarily linked to each country’s Nationally Determined Contributions.
 Cassar, I., Estimates of output, income, value added and employment multipliers for the Maltese economy, Central Bank of Malta, Valletta, 2015.
 Garrett-Peltier, H., ‘Green versus brown: Comparing the employment impacts of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and fossil fuels using an input-output model’, Economic Modelling, 61, 2017, 439–447.
 OECD, OECD economic outlook 2009, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2010.
 Stehrer, R., & Ward, T., Monitoring of sectoral employment, European Commission, Brussels, 2012.
 WEF, & IHS CERA., Energy for economic growth: Energy vision update 2012, World Economic Forum, Geneva, 2012.
 Wild, R., Type I employment multipliers and effects for the UK for reference year 2010, Department for Business, Innovation & Skills, London, 2014.
 ILO (International Labour Office), World Employment and Social Outlook 2018: Greening with jobs, ILO, Geneva, 2018.
 As described in ILO (2018), the scenario takes into account the projection in electric car sales. See chapter 2 and Annex 2 in ILO (2018) for the data and methods used for the projections.
 ILO (International Labour Organization), Guidelines for a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all, ILO, Geneva, 2015.
 Percentage difference in employment between the sustainable energy scenario and the IEA 6°C (business-as-usual) scenario by 2030. Appendix 2 in ILO (2018) provides further methodological details on the data and methods used.