The focus of this report is on the international trade in the sector of low-carbon energy technologies (LCETs). It helps better assessing the European Union's comparative advantage in each technology sector. It also allows the analysis at the level of individual Member States.
For some technologies, as in the case of clean coal and gas, wind and heating, the value of EU exports overcomes the value of imports, indicating a positive trade balance; on the other side, in the solar PV sector the EU has a negative trade balance.
The total of commercial exchanges regarding LCETs has increased over time, in particular because of the growing relationship with China and with countries in western Asia and northern Africa. These complement the already established partnerships with the United States and the other European countries (Norway, Russia and Switzerland).
In the low-carbon technologies sector, total internal European trade is higher in value than the total trade with countries outside the EU. Furthermore, some Member States show the opposite trade balances in respect to these two groups. Depending on technology areas and on the period of analysis, the trade balance of individual countries varies over time and according to the partner countries considered.