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European Industrial Initiative on carbon capture and storage

Indicative Roadmap (click on Figure to enlarge)

Strategic objective

To demonstrate the commercial viability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies in an economic environment driven by the emissions trading scheme. In particular, to enable the cost competitive deployment of CCS technologies in coal-fired power plants by 2020-2025 and to further develop the technologies to allow for their subsequent wide-spread use in all carbon intensive industrial sectors.

Industrial sector objective

To enable European fossil fuel power plants to have near to zero CO2 emissions by 2020.

Technology objectives

1.    Proving the technical and economic feasibility of CCS using existing technology

  • To test the most promising CO2 capture, transport and storage technologies at large scale in a fully integrated chain (called CCS chain hereafter) and optimise their operational performance, for demonstrating the technical feasibility and safety of the CCS concept.
  • To reduce the costs of CO2 capture (currently estimated to be around 60-90 € per tonne of CO2 abated) and therefore to lower the cost of electricity produced by CCS-equipped power plants through learning effects, thus making CCS technology cost competitive in the European power generation system.

2.    Developing more efficient and cost competitive CCS technologies

  • To further improve the efficiency of conventional (non-CCS) power plants that will enable the utilisation of CO2 capture technologies at a minimum overall efficiency penalty.
  • To develop new capture concepts that will pave the way for next generations of CO2 capture technologies, marked by improved performance (i.e. lower efficiency penalty and cost of capture), which will result in further reductions of electricity costs to levels comparable to or lower than those associated with other future low-carbon technologies.
  • To further optimise capture technologies for expanding their use to other carbon-intensive sectors such as the cement, refineries and the iron and steel industries.
  • To develop alternative technologies for CO2 transport and storage that will enable the geographically broader deployment of CCS technologies.

Actions

1.    Proving the technical and economic feasibility of CCS using existing technology

  • Realisation of a large scale demonstration programme for the construction and operation of a fleet of up to 12 large-scale first-of-a-kind power plants that capture, transport and store the majority of the CO2 generated during their operation. The aim of the demonstration programme will be to test CCS technologies and their integration on a large scale and demonstrate their long term operational availability and reliability. The operation of the plants will commence by 2015 in the power sector to allow a sufficient track record by 2020 and provide the necessary learning for the next generation of CCS plants to come on stream in power generation and industrial sectors soon after 2020. The early demonstration programme will ensure that the first CCS projects will not focus only on the simplest technological solutions but collectively develop a coherent portfolio that will demonstrate CCS chains comprising different capture (post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel) and storage (on- and offshore saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields) options using different fossil fuel types.
  • Establishment of a network of CCS projects representing the portfolio of demonstration plants, aiming at a structured and coordinated knowledge sharing and the development of joint activities concerning public acceptance, international cooperation, identification of future R&D priorities, etc. The network will facilitate the identification of best practises through information sharing; achieve cost savings for projects by undertaking joint activities in areas where synergies can be best developed and exploited, and leverage the projects for increasing public acceptance of CCS by using them as evidence of the safety of geological storage of CO2.

2.    Developing more efficient and cost competitive CCS technologies

Establishment of an R&D programme that will address:

  • Fossil fuel conversion technologies aimed at improving power plant efficiency in all main fossil fuel power generation routes to better compensate for the efficiency penalty imposed by CO2 capture.
  • Capture technologies aimed at improved efficiency and cost-effectiveness and their better integration in power generation. This includes research on new components and technologies, such as solvents and membranes. New technology options, whenever mature, will be first tested through pilot plants. Such testing will ultimately contribute to the optimisation of processes in large plants.
  • Transport and storage concepts aimed at identifying and quantifying storage capacities in Europe; as well as injection and monitoring technologies to track CO2 in underground reservoirs and to detect leaks. Research in CO2 transport includes improved materials for pipelines and terminal storage installations as well as development and testing of ship transport concepts.
  • Use of CCS technologies in other industrial sectors focusing on the research for the application of capture technologies to carbon-intensive industrial sectors such as cement, steel, refineries, etc.

Indicative costs (2010-2020)

Technology Objectives

Costs (M€)

1. Proving existing technology (additional costs for CCS only)

8 500 - 13 000

2. Developing more efficient and cost competitive CCS technologies

2 000 - 3 500

Total

10 500 - 16 500


This reflects the total sum of the required public and private investments.

Indicative Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Strategic Key Performance Indicator: Cost of CCS technology (including capture, transport and storage) in power plants reduced by 30-40% by 2020

Specific KPIs

  • Average annual load factor of at least 80% in CCS power plants by 2020
  • Average annual CO2 capture rate of at least 90% in CCS power plants by 2020
  • Net efficiency of coal fired power plants equipped with CCS (pulverised coal with post-combustion capture, IGCC with pre-combustion capture, or oxyfuel) higher than 40% by 2020.
  • Net efficiency of conventional coal fired power plants higher than 50% by 2020.
  • Publication of an accurate atlas of CO2 storage sites in Europe and an outline of the European transport infrastructure by 2020
  • First commercial deployment of CCS technologies to energy intensive industrial applications by 2025.